fS-Trigly KL 2770
Part study of the Lipid profile test package
The primary fats found in food are triglycerides, which consist of glycerol and three fatty acids linked together. Triglycerides are not only obtained from food but are also synthesized in the body, primarily in the liver. After a meal, chylomicrons containing triglycerides are present in the bloodstream. These chylomicrons acquire apoC-II proteins on their surface, which are essential for activating the lipoprotein lipase enzyme (LPL) in the target tissues, such as fat and muscle tissues. LPL breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol. The released fatty acids are transported to various tissues for storage, while glycerol is transported back to the liver. In adipose tissue, fatty acids are stored as triglycerides, whereas in muscle tissue, they serve as an energy source. Additionally, triglycerides formed in the liver are transported into the bloodstream with the VLDL lipoprotein, and the fatty acids from these triglycerides are released to the target tissues with the assistance of the LPL enzyme.
Triglyceride measurement is included in the diagnostic tests for dyslipidemia, which involves abnormalities in fat values. Other tests conducted in this context include fS-Chol, fS-LDL-C, and fS-HDL-C. To accurately diagnose dyslipidemia, at least two samples must be taken on different days to determine the levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.
As part of the lipid package.
1 mL of fasting serum, minimum 0.5 mL. An icteric sample is not valid.
Storage and delivery
The sample can be refrigerated for up to a week, but for longer storage, it should be kept frozen. Delivery at room temperature, if it arrives within 24 hours.
Enzymatic. Accrediated method.
1 – 2 weekdays
Recommended value below 2.0 mmol/L.
The target value is determined according to the Dyslipidemiat Käypä hoito (Current Care Guidelines for Dyslipidemias) recommendation published on October 27, 2020, by the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim and the Finnish Association of Internal Medicine.
Interpretation of results
Elevated serum triglyceride levels can have genetic origins. Primary hypertriglyceridemia, which appears during adolescence and adulthood, is an autosomal dominantly inherited hyperlipidemia. In this condition, triglyceride concentrations can rise between 2-10 mmol/L and in extreme cases, even exceed 100 mmol/L. A triglyceride concentration of 5-10 mmol/L poses a risk for pancreatitis.
Secondary elevation of triglyceride concentration can be associated with various factors other than heredity. This type of increase is often related to conditions such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. In addition to hypertriglyceridemia, these conditions are characterized by reduced HDL cholesterol concentration and increased apoB concentration, while the LDL cholesterol concentration remains normal. There is also an augmented production of VLDL in the liver and increased production of chylomicrons in the intestine, along with a slowed catabolism of these particles. This condition can lead to fatty liver.
Triglyceride values can also increase due to heavy alcohol consumption, resulting in fatty liver, as well as poorly controlled diabetes, obesity, kidney failure, biliary obstruction, acute pancreatitis, paraproteinemia, and gout. High doses of diuretics, beta-blockers, and estrogen-containing contraceptives (e-pills) can also elevate triglyceride levels.
On the other hand, low triglyceride levels are found in conditions such as hyperthyroidism, malnutrition, malabsorption, beta lipoprotein deficiency states, and hyperparathyroidism.
Dyslipidemiat, Käypä hoito-suositus, 14.12.2022. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Sisätautilääkärien Yhdistys ry:n asettama työryhmä
Ravitsemustiede, Duodecim 2021 (toim. M. Mutanen, H. Niinikoski, U. Schwab, M. Uusitupa)
Last update 8.8.2023